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8 個小時拼板舟以外,回到藤帽、飛魚,還有山藥的故鄉Only 8 Hrs away, back to the home of rattan hat, flying fish, and yam

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在蘭嶼達悟族的傳說裡,曾經有位漁人在大魚聚集的地方(Jikazezyongan),遇到一位面貌相像,語言相似的異國人,叫 Si-Vakag。

漁人問這位異國朋友,從他們所在到蘭嶼要多久,朋友說約 3 小時。

漁人再問他,從這裡到他的島要多久,Si-Vakag 回他,從這裡到他家所在的島要 5 個小時。

Long says a folk tale among Tao people of Orchid Island of Taiwan:

Long time ago, a Tao fisherman, Si-Jiaong, encountered a stranger who yet looked so much alike his people and wielded a similar language in the middle of the ocean. The stranger was called Si-Vakag.

Si-Jiaong asked Si-Vakag, how long did it take from where they were sailing to Orchid Island. Si-Vakag said 3 hrs only.

Si-Jiaong asked again, how long did it take from where they were sailing back to Si-Vakag’s sland. Si-Vakag replied 5 hrs.

這位與達悟族人語言相通的朋友,正是來自菲律賓的巴丹島。

 

踏著馬鞍藤就可到達的兩座島嶼

2636906572_7a04edaedf_o以獨木舟划行 8 小時能到達的地方,並不算遠,就像巴丹島的伊巴丹族人(Ivatan)和蘭嶼達悟族人的關係一樣,一直都很近。

根據達悟族人的口述歷史,他們的祖先並非來自台灣島,而是來自 110 公里以外,位於菲律賓群島東北方的巴丹島(Batan):

傳說中,蘭嶼的野銀部落曾遍佈馬鞍藤,它們的藤蔓與紫色的花朵,甚至從野銀部落一直往南生長,跨越了寬廣的大海,直到菲律賓的巴丹島;成為連接兩座島嶼的通路。直到後來,兩個島嶼的人民有了爭執事端,連接他們之間的馬鞍藤,也神奇地斷裂了。

-- 事實上,野銀部落有個美麗的達悟名字,叫 Ivalino「伊瓦利諾」;名字來源正是象徵他們與伊巴丹族人情誼的美麗 valino,馬鞍藤,而達悟族的別稱「雅美族」,實際上也是來自伊巴島族人對他們的稱呼:Yami,意思是「北方」。

 

學術與口傳歷史的佐證

這樣的傳說也得到了學界的佐證:無論是從語言學、人類學,或植物學的角度,都可看到達悟族人是在幾百年前來自巴丹島的蛛絲馬跡:

至今伊巴丹語與達悟語,仍有 60% 以上的相通;從文化上而言,無論是造船、建築,還是祭典,都曾經是伊巴丹族人的文化資產,後來因為時代與外來文化的入侵而消逝,卻都幸運地在蘭嶼的達悟文化裡流傳下來,然而兩個島的族人,至今仍戴一樣的藤帽、遵守同樣的古禮、留著相似的髮型,並同樣用燈火在母親的大海上補每年春夏間的飛魚。

蘭嶼的紅頭部落有則山藥怪人的傳說,描述一位達悟族爸爸帶著兩個小孩,一齊到南方一座小島上,從山藥怪人手中救出了孩子們的媽媽。事實上,達悟人正是把山藥叫做 ovi no dehdah「巴丹山藥」,因為傳說山藥是伊巴丹族人傳給達悟族人的。而台灣本島罕見的台東龍眼,據說也是自巴丹島傳到蘭嶼的。

 

再次回到山藥的故鄉

一直到幾世紀前,巴丹島的伊巴丹族人和蘭嶼的達悟族人,仍然有頻繁的通婚與海上貿易的紀錄,直到一次貿易中爆發衝突,兩族人從此斷絕關係,不再往來,直到上個世紀。

只是一回頭,巴丹島伊巴丹族人的名字全變成英語和西班牙語,而蘭嶼達悟族的名字頭銜 Si 也變成中文的「謝」。達悟族導演張也海‧夏曼在他的電影《島嶼的記憶》片頭說:

在口傳歷史的脈絡裡
曾經我們擁有兄弟般情誼的
這兩個島嶼
[……]
在百餘年後的現代
於是一個變成了中華民國
一個變成了菲律賓

曾經 8 個小時就可順風航行而至的兄弟島嶼,現在達悟族人必須要轉三次飛機,花上一天的時間才可到達。

不過沒關係,因為兩島的族人從上個世紀開始,就又恢復積極互動,總有一天,會找回他們曾經擁有的兄弟情誼,修復兩個島之間的馬鞍藤。

部落有什麼活動?

2013 部落電影院,正式開跑!

每個原住民族文化,就像是每個土地上的第一張花紙,
經過陽光的灑落,穿過花紙,輝映在這片原生土地上,
穿過花紙,我則是此地上的第一道輝映。

祈望傳承與創新,輝映新一代關於原住民族的剪影,
再次閃耀這片土地上……

原文會繼 2011 年舉辦首屆「部落電影院」大獲好評後,將在今年繼續舉辦第二屆「部落電影院」,以露天電影院的方式在全台部落走透透,讓全台各地的阿公阿嬤大 vuvu 小 vuvu 和 salikaka,都能看到知名原住民導演的精采電影!

從 10/20 開始,是描寫「美美」混血兒(美國混阿美族)Asang 回都歷部落尋根的故事;10/26,張也海‧夏曼導演描述達悟族人與伊巴丹族人的百年情誼,將在蘭嶼上映(來台灣島放吧,求求你!);11/2,導演撒舒優‧渥巴拉特透過他的鏡頭,告訴我們,歷史上四個民族走過的阿朗壹古道,從來都不是屬於任何人的!

片單名稱

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黑孩子

導演:撒舒優‧渥巴拉特

(曾連豪)

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(花蓮縣鳳林鎮中正路一段120巷25號)

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(臺南市東山區東河里133號)

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叫心裡醒來的笛音

11月30日

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屏東縣三地鄉禮納裡部落大社村穿山甲藝文廣場

(屏東縣三地鄉大社村和平路二段35號)

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太陽之子

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屏東縣來義鄉文樂村文樂國小活動中心

(屏東縣來義鄉文樂村新樂路1號)

Boxing

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 想隨時看更多原住民的新聞和故事嗎?
現在就加入我們的粉絲團吧!

資料來源:〈台灣蘭嶼與菲律賓巴丹群島的「區域研究」及其「族群」論述〉(楊政賢)/圖片來源:第二屆部落電影院madtrap(CC Licensed)

Si-Vakag, the man who could communicate with the Tao fisherman directly, is from the Batanes Islands of the Philippines. He is a Ivatan.

 

The Two Islands Connected with the Beach Morning-Glory

2636906572_7a04edaedf_o

Two islands of only 8 hours away by boat are not far from each other indeed, just like the relationship between the peoples of Ivatan and Tao.

According to the legend of Tao, their ancestors did not come from Taiwan, but from the Batanes Islands 110 kms away.

And the legend says, Ivalino, a Tao community, used to grow an abundance of the beach morning-glory. The green vines and the purple flowers of the beach morning-glory were so strong and extensive that they even crept over the wide ocean to the thither Batanes Islands, just like the deep friendship and the connection between Tao people and Ivatan people.

However, later there were some serious arguments between the two peoples, and the vines of the plants then magically disconnected, just like the broken friendship of the two.

The beautiful name of Ivalino actually stands for the name of the beautiful beach morning-glory “valino” in the language of Tao. The name “Yami” that Taiwanese and Japanese people used to call Tao people was a term that Ivatan people called their brothers on Orchid Island actually, which means “North”.

 

Scientific and Mythical Evidence

We could still see many evidences that Tao people came from the Batanes Islands, in terms of linguistics, anthropology, or botany:

The mutual intelligibility between Tao language and Ivatan language is over 60%. Culturally, Ivatan people used to practice the same boat-making and architectural skills as Tao people but no more now as they abandoned them later; but the two peoples still share the same costumes like rattan hat, the same ceremonial practices, and make the same hair style now — Both of them catch flying fish with fire on Mother Sea every Spring and Summer.

The Tao community Imourod has a legend of a yam monster, and the story is about a Tao father went to a Southern Island with his two children two rescue the children’s mother from a yam monster — Actually the Chinese yam is called ovi no dehdah in Tao, meaning “the Yam of the Batanes Islands”, because they say it was Ivatan people who brought the yam to Tao people! Pometia pinnata Forst. which is hard to find in Taiwan but abundant in Orchid Island, traveled from the Batanes Islands actually.

 

Back to the Home of Yam Again

Ivatan people and Tao people used to have close relationship in marriage and trading oversea frequently centuries ago, until a serious argument caused by trading interrupted their friendship. They since then have not communicated with each other till the 20th century.

It’s just when they see each other again, the names of Ivatan have become Spanish or English, and the title of Tao, Si, has become ‘Xe’ in Chinese. The Tao director Chang Yeh-Hai Sya Man says in his movie “Memory of Islands” that:

According to the folk tales,

As from the two islands,

We used to have close friendship like brothers,

[……]

Centuries later,

One has become a part of the Republic of China,

And another of the Philippines

And therefore the peoples from the two islands used to travel 8 hours only to see each other now need to transfer flights three times and travel one day to meet up. Still, with the closer contact of the younger generations of the two peoples, we believe they will soon recover their friendship like brothers, and recover the beautiful beach morning-glory between the two islands.

 

Source:〈台灣蘭嶼與菲律賓巴丹群島的「區域研究」及其「族群」論述〉(楊政賢)/Photo via 第二屆部落電影院madtrap(CC Licensed)

我是小編

《Mata‧Taiwan》主編 Benson 專用帳號,在支持原民自治與平埔正名的路上,歡迎大家多多批評指教。

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